Lovage seeds from a plant of the caraway family, used mainly in Indian cooking. The small greenish-brown seeds are a little larger than celery seeds and have a strong aroma of rather coarse thyme. Oregano can be substituted.
Sumac. The dried fruits of this plant are very sour. They are ground into a reddish-purple powder which is used in savoury cooking in the same way as aam chur (mango powder).
Tropical almond. The fruit looks similar to the almond and is usually pale green, though it may be reddish-purple. There is a fibrous seed containing a pointed kernel, or nut. It can be eaten fresh and raw, or cooked. It is sometimes difficult to remove the fibrous seed without damaging the nut. There is a thin covering of skin on the nut, and it is worth removing it as it can be very astringent. It is much prized in the Moghul cooking of northern India, they are eaten fresh or used in badam barfi, fudge-like sweets, or used to thicken sauces in dishes such as korma. They are grown in Kashmir and Afghanistan as they do not grow well in tropical regions. Elsewhere, cashew and other nuts are substituted.