Cocoa (powder). Cocoa came to Spain from the New World in about 1528 and trade was monopolised by Spain for another 200 years. However, smugglers managed to disperse cocoa throughout Europe and the first cocoa beans were taken to Piedmont in about 1557 after the Duke of Savoy, Emanuele Filiberto, became an ally of Spain against France. As cocoa became the most popular drink in Europe, Turin gained a reputation for becoming a major centre for its processing and, by the middle of the 19th century, was creating chocolate sweets which have remained renowned ever since. These include diablotins and gianduja.

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