Sesame. Indian sesame seeds are cream-coloured, small and glossy. Chinese sesame seeds are black.
"Sesame pills." A sticky mixture of crushed sesame seeds and palm sugar. They are shaped into bite-size balls and sold by the road sides.
Amaranth. This covers many varieties of a sweetish green leafy vegetable known by many different names, including callalloo, elephant’s ear, African/Chinese/Ceylon/Indian spinach, Surinam amaranth, basella etc. Most commonly it is a tropical climbing plant that can grow as high as 2 meters (6 ft), the leaves being harvested as the plant grows and cooked in the same way as spinach. In India the most common is Basella alba or Indian Spinach.
Spanish or chub mackerel with pinkish, oily flesh, large eyes and spotted skin. It has a lot of fat so it is best grilled, and fresh.
Long pepper. They are tiny berries which cleave to a single rod which looks similar to a dried catkin and provide a hot, sweet spice.
Fenugreek. The seeds impart a distinctive, smoky flavour to dishes. Both the leaves and seeds are used, in the same way as they are for coriander (US: cilantro).
Split black gram lentil. Hulled, it is a creamy white, which is why it is sometimes called white gram.
Hibiscus flower. It is either made into long cooling drinks or can be dipped in batter and fried, in the same way as courgette (US: zucchini) flowers.